|Australian Journal of Educational Technology
2000, 16(2), 147-160.
This paper presents the results of developmental research into the design of an online unit on Interactive Multimedia project management. The decision to offer the unit online was based on a requirement for the unit to be available in external mode, and an awareness that the traditional print-based delivery of material was not the most appropriate format considering the characteristics of a project-based unit.
The unit was designed around online collaborative activities, supported by content, in close alignment with Laurillard's (1993) model of the ideal teaching-learning process. An extension of this model was developed to explicitly allow for discussion between students.
Following a requirements analysis, WebCT was chosen as the course management tool by which the unit was made available to the students. The online activities used in the design of the course included: publishing personal web pages, online questionnaires, online seminars, the submission of relevant resources found by students, and general forum participation.
Finally, a framework for evaluating the merit of the online environment has been developed and will be briefly discussed.
In traditional format, prior to being offered online, the unit consisted of thirteen, three-hour class sessions. In the first nine sessions, students attend a lecture, which is followed by a group-based activity. Team skills and collaboration are continually promoted and reinforced throughout the unit. Teams of approximately four students are formed, necessitating the development of project management skills, communication skills and quality assurance systems.
There are three assignments: 'Analysis and Plan' worth 30 marks, 'Design' worth 35 marks and 'Final Product' worth 35 marks. Each of the assignments contains four marking components, in order of importance:
The university had a strong and structured background in the development of print-based external studies programmes. External units require a Plan (administrative details), a Guide (course content modules) and a Reader (required readings) developed according to traditional Instructional Design principles (Herrington, 1996). However, we foresaw difficulties in trying to replicate the project-based and group-work aspects of this course by the essentially solitary, traditional, print-based distance education approach. Our review of the literature, on the other hand, indicated that it was possible to duplicate, to a large extent, the on-campus experience in online mode using collaboration and communication tools available on the Internet.
Since IMM is inherently multi-disciplinary and team-based (Phillips, 1997, p43) and because technology is changing so rapidly, the characteristics most valued by business and industry are especially important in interactive multimedia work environments. One of the features of the University's on-campus delivery of multimedia courses is the development of these graduate characteristics, and, consequently, many units are presented in a student-centred fashion which encourages group discussion, project work and independent learning of new software packages.
There is substantial literature about the use of the Internet as a collaborative tool rather than a medium for transmission of content (Collis, 1996; Harasim, 1993; Harasim, Hiltz, Teles, & Turoff, 1995; Jonassen, Davidson, Collins, Campbell, & Haag, 1995). Harasim et al. (1995) have examined how computer mediated communications can create the richness of an on-campus experience for off-campus students, using well-established and inexpensive technology. They identified a range of collaborative activities generated for the student by the teacher, such as online seminars, small group discussions, group presentations, debates and role plays.
Teles (1994) has elaborated on the cognitive apprenticeship model (Brown, Collins, & Duguid, 1989) by identifying 'teleapprenticeship' activities such as mentoring and peer collaboration. Collis has discussed the establishment of integrated and collaborative online learning environments to foster the development of student teamwork and communication skills (Collis, 1997; van der Veen & Collis, 1997).
An essential component of successful online educational activity is building a sense of community (Dillenbourg, 1995), for example, through a 'virtual cafe' (Harasim et al., 1995). Harasim (1993) has found that it is important to specifically design an online learning environment which encourages participation by students. A particular difficulty is that students are reluctant to contribute unless they have 'met' each other. One solution is for students to have some initial face-to-face contact (Harasim et al., 1995). Alternatively, students can initially meet by video conference (Pouw, van der Veen, & Andernach, 1997; van der Veen, 1997) or simply by publishing home pages about themselves.
The literature review gave us confidence that an online version of the project management unit could be designed in a way which blurred the distinction between internal and external enrolment modes, offered more flexibility to our students, and yet enabled us to continue a high quality, student-centred learning experience.
Laurillard argues that teachers should continually reflect on the success of their teaching and adapt their learning activities accordingly, as shown (left side of Fig. 1). The process of re-engineering the project management unit for online delivery is an adaptation based on our reflection about the strengths and weaknesses of the original unit structure.
Figure 1: Laurillard's model of the ideal teaching-learning process (Laurillard, 1993)
A weakness in Laurillard's model is that it ignores the role of discussion between students in the learning process. Social constructivist learning theory (Vygotsky, 1978), on the other hand, argues that learning involves social discourse between peers. We present here an enhancement of Laurillard's model (Fig. 2), which explicitly allows for communication and discussion between students. We used the expanded Laurillard model as a blueprint for designing the online unit as follows:
Figure 2: Adaptation of Laurillard's model of the ideal teaching-learning
process which allows for communication between students.
An evaluation of this unit is currently underway, in order to determine:
The online version of the unit was designed with a focus on collaborative activities, supported by the content-based resources of a Guide (online and print) and Reader (print only, for copyright reasons). A decision was made to limit the amount of online text as much as possible. The online text was generally quite brief and simply summarised the topic and directed students to other resources.
The online activities are described in detail in the following section. However, as part of the design of the activities, a requirements analysis was carried out to determine whether the activities were feasible, and what technological tools were available. The WebCT course management system (WebCT Educational Technologies, 1999) was able to provide the required functionality. The online activities and associated WebCT tools and functions are summarised in Table 1 [Endnote 1].
WebCT also enabled monitoring of student progress and discussion forum use. This was particularly helpful in identifying students who had not accessed course materials and were at risk of withdrawing.
|Online activity||WebCT tool|
|Students to publish information about themselves||Individual presentation areas (Home page tool)|
|Project teams to share documents, submit team assignments and publish their final web-based projects||Group presentation area tool|
|Students to ask questions about general issues||General discussion forum (Bulletin Board tool)|
|Students to discuss set topics on a weekly basis||Specific discussion forum (Bulletin Board tool)|
|Teams to share work in progress||Private discussion forum (Bulletin Board tool)|
|Access to online course materials||HTML pages available through the Path tool|
|Students to record their own notes||Notes tool|
|Links to external sites||Links tool|
|Students to publish resources which they have located (references, URLs, etc.)||Bulletin Board tool|
The major weekly activity was an online seminar in which one task group created and published a short summary paper on an aspect of project management, outlining the topic and raising issues for discussion. Students then moderated the discussion and published a synopsis paper at the end of the week. Eight marks were allocated for this. Nineteen marks were allocated for individual contributions to discussions, which included responding to online seminars, other scheduled activities, or assisting other students with technical knowledge or other advice.
|Team assessment of project||51|
|Team consensus mark||±??|
|Individual reflective report||16|
|Contribution to discussions||19|
Table 3 shows part of the Unit Outline for Semester 1, 1999. It illustrates how the course was structured around the concept of online activities, discussed in the following sections.
Introduce yourself to your fellow students by publishing a personal home page in the WebCT area. Feel free to include as much information about yourself as you want, including links to your real home page, if you have one.Lecturers and tutors also took part in this activity.
Please include the following information on your page (take a light-hearted approach):
- your nickname
- your hobbies
- the most interesting event in your life
- the most embarrassing event in your life
- your life experiences in project management of any form
- any IMM project development experiences
- any other management experience
course and WebCT.
post message to week 1 forum
on student skills
|2||What is project
about "What is project management?"
|3||Team issues, time
project diary and
about "What is a script?"
This week your lecturer(s) will demonstrate the type of discussion required of each of you in subsequent weeks, by posting a discussion paper on Project Management Models and Life Cycles to the week 2 forum. Please read the lecturer's contribution and ask questions and make comments about it. Bear the following question in mind when you are constructing your responses: Why do you need Project Management Models? At the end of the week the lecturer will post a synopsis of the week's discussion.Notice that students were required to contribute to the discussion and that a synopsis was given at the end of the week. In following weeks, a student task group prepared and presented the online seminar in a similar fashion, and answered questions posted by other individual students and lecturers. At the end of the week a synopsis of the week's comments was posted, as described by activity 3.4 below:
Task Group 1 is to write a short summary paper on group decision-making techniques, to be posted on Monday to the week 3 forum. All other students are expected to contribute their experiences and observations on this topic. Task Group 5 moderates the discussion and posts a final synopsis on Friday morning.Each student task team was required to present one online seminar with moderation and a synopsis at the end of the week. It is important to note that the student task groups presenting the lecture were different to the project teams developing the multimedia product. This illustrates the continual reinforcement of collaboration and teamwork that is promoted in the unit.
Others were solicited by the tutors on an ad-hoc basis as issues arose from other discussions. Others came from students answering questions from other students about particular technical issues.
One such activity survived from our ongoing reflection and adaptation of our course design, as activity 2.2:
Search the literature and the Web for case studies on Project Management. A good starting point is this week's readings and URLs. Write a two paragraph summary of the case study, and submit the summary and the URL/reference to the Class Resource List. You should try to focus on IMM projects, but generally applicable information from any type of project management is acceptable.
A framework for evaluation of the online unit has been developed. It will evaluate the merit of the online environment, ie. the process by which IMM3202/4201 is made available to students and what might be done to improve it. The study will also evaluate the outcomes achieved by students studying the unit. Data has been gathered from a range of sources and is currently being analysed. The results of the analysis, to be published in a subsequent paper, will be used to determine improvements to the way the unit is being taught.
Collis, B. (1996). Tele-learning in a Digital World: The Future of Distance Learning. International Thomson Computer Press.
Collis, B. (1997). Supporting project-based collaborative work via a world wide web environment. In B. H. Khan (Ed.), Web-Based Instruction (pp. 213-219). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Educational Technology Publications.
Dillenbourg, P. S. (1995). Collaborative learning and the Internet. [verified 13 Jul 2000] http://tecfa.unige.ch/tecfa/tecfa-research/CMC/colla/iccai95_1.html
Harasim, L. (1993). Collaborating in Cyberspace: Using computer conferences as a group learning environment. Interactive Learning Environments, 3(2), 119-130.
Harasim, L., Hiltz, S. R., Teles, L. & Turoff, M. (1995). Learning Networks- a Field Guide to Teaching and Learning Online. Cambridge Massachusetts: The MIT Press.
Herrington, J. (1996). Creating effective learning environments in print: A guide for lecturers and designers of independent study materials. Perth, Western Australia: Edith Cowan University.
Jonassen, D., Davidson, M., Collins, C., Campbell, J. & Haag, B. B. (1995). Constructivism and computer-mediated communication in distance education. The American Journal of Distance Education, 9(2), 7-26.
Laurillard, D. M. (1993). Rethinking University Teaching: A Framework for the Effective Use of Educational Technology. London: Routledge.
Laurillard, D. M. (1994). Multimedia and the changing experience of the learner. Paper presented at the Asia Pacific Information Technology in Training and Education Conference, Brisbane, Australia.
Lotus Corp. (1998). Learning Space: Distributed Collaborative Learning. http://www.lotus.com/home.nsf/tabs/learnspace/ [verified 13 Jul 2000]
Marginson, S. (1993). Arts, Science and Work. Canberra: Department of Employment Education and Training, Evaluations and Investigations Programme.
Phillips, R. (1997). The Developer's Handbook to Interactive Multimedia - A Practical Guide for Educational Applications. London: Kogan Page.
Pouw, C. L. M., van der Veen, J. T. & Andernach, J. A. (1997). International TeleProject Groups in Higher Education (Internal Report ). Twente, The Netherlands: University of Twente.
Teles, L. (1994). Cognitive Apprenticeships on Global Networks. In L. Harasim (Ed.), Global Networks - Computers and International Communication (pp. 271-281). Cambridge, Mass: The MIT Press.
van der Veen, J. T. (1997). Use of videoconferences to initiate contact within a new group of students. Personal communication.
van der Veen, J. T. & Collis, B. (1997). Telematic tools to support group projects in higher education. Paper presented at the Ed-Media 97 Conference, Calgary Canada.
Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). In M. Cole, V. John-Steiner, S. Scribner, & E. Souberman (Eds.), Mind in Society. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press.
WBT Systems (1998). TopClass Overview. http://www.wbtsystems.com/index.html [verified 13 Jul 2000]
WebCT Educational Technologies (1999). WebCT: World Wide Web Course Tools. http://www.webct.com/ [verified 13 Jul 2000]
|Authors: Rob Phillips, Teaching and Learning Centre, Murdoch University, Murdoch WA 6150. firstname.lastname@example.org
Joe Luca, School of Communications and Multimedia, Edith Cowan University, Mt Lawley WA 6050. email@example.com
Please cite as: Phillips, R. and Luca, J. (2000). Issues involved in developing a project based online unit which enhances teamwork and collaboration. Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 16(2), 147-160. http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet16/phillips.html